BASIC Course – online video – part 10

Part 10: Skin. Structure and Functions
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The epidermis
The epidermis – is an upper and thinnest skin layer. It is a multi-layered flat keratinizing epithelium. It consists of five cells layers, differing in differentiation degree. The lowest (basal) layer of the epidermis borders with the dermis vessels.

Fission and metabolism processes are most active in epidermis. Moving upwards the cells of the epidermis (keratinocytes) flatten, lose the nucleus and organelles. The water consistency decreases. The upper (horny) layer consists of “dead” cells without metabolism. Normally, the replacing process takes about a month. In addition to the majority of keratinocytes in the epidermis, there are fewer types of cells: melanocytes that perform a pigment-forming function, Langerhans cells (immune system cells), and lymphocytes.
Dermis includes papillary and reticular layers. The collagen and elastin fibres located in the dermis are the supporting skeleton of the skin and along with the interstitial substance provides its firmness. Smooth muscle fibres could be found here. The muscle lifting the hair is shrinking and causing the “Goosebumps” effect. Sebaceous and sweat glands, hair roots, blood vessels, tactile cells of Merkel and Meissner, free nerve endings are located in dermis.
Subcutaneous tissue
Subcutaneous tissue – also called the hypodermis is the lowermost layer of the integumentary system in vertebrates. The types of cells found in the hypodermis are fibroblasts, adipose cells, and macrophages. The hypodermis is derived from the mesoderm, but unlike the dermis, it is not derived from the dermatome region of the mesoderm. This skin layer protects us from sudden temperature changes. During a long period of nutritional deficiencies the body receives the energy by splitting fat cells.
The pigment is injected between the basement membrane of the epidermis and the papillary dermis.

We determine the depth of immersion of the needle into the skin by the vibration of the device in the hand. The deeper the dive, the stronger the vibration
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